Introduces students to spatial concepts that are important in the planning, construction, and operation of civil engineering projects and activities. Introduces the expression of these concepts in graphical language, which is central to civil and architectural communication by first developing some basic skills in CAD. Studies concepts and principles of location and layout of points on the surface of the 3-D earth from both a historical and a modern technology perspective. Also covers the problem of converting the curved surface of the earth onto a plane map or computer screen. Reviews the use of plane concepts for local layouts, along with the circumstances under which 2-D plane concepts can be utilized. Discusses and demonstrates the technological basis for modern measurement and positioning systems, such as DME and GPS. Covers techniques used to identify and lay out land areas in the United States. Introduces GIS.