Focuses on wilderness and biocentrism. Explores the idea of wilderness along three pathways. Part 1 deals with the history of biological wilderness and philosophical wilderness from Spinoza to Leopold to Snyder. Part 2 covers biological and other wilderness qualities. Part 3 examines the social movements related to wilderness and biocentrism. Also explores environmental ethics and morals. Investigates proposals for wilderness restoration, preservation, and expansion. A close examination of indigenous cultures' wilderness beliefs accompanies our study.