This course explores the pre- and protohistoric record of human-environment interaction, as well as current traditional environmental knowledge (TEK). Scholars once imagined such relationships as unchanging and predictable, focusing on humans as victims or destroyers. Today, research examines socio-natural systems as complex interactions between the non-living world and living creatures, and between humans and other organisms. Modern ecosystems are historically contingent and represent centuries or millennia of human-environment interactions. Course material focuses on archaeological, historical and interdisciplinary examples of problems and solutions to environment-related conditions. This course is dual-listed with APY 729. This course is the same as APY 459 and course repeat rules will apply. Students should consult with their major department regarding any restrictions on their degree requirements.